Mazandaran is a Caspian province in the north of Iran. Located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Mazandaran is one of the most densely populated provinces in Iran and has diverse natural resources, especially large reservoirs of oil and natural gas. Mazandaran was declared the second modern province after neighbouring Gilan. The diverse nature of the province features plains, prairies, forests and jungles stretching from the sandy beaches of the Caspian Sea to the rugged and snowcapped Elburz sierra, including Mount Damavand, the highest peak and volcano in the Middle East and Western Asia, which at the narrowest point (Nowshahr County) narrows to 5 miles.
Mazandaran is a major producer of farmed fish, and aquaculture provides an important economic addition to traditional dominance of agriculture. Another important contributor to the economy is the tourism industry, as people from all of Iran enjoy visiting the area. Mazandaran is also a fast-growing centre for biotechnology and civil engineering.
Human habitation in the area dates back at least 75,000 years. Recent excavations in Goher Tippe provide proof that the area has been urbanized for more than 5,000 years, and the area is considered one of the most important historical sites of Iran. It has played an important role in cultural and urban development of the region. Indigenous peoples of the region include the ethnic Mazanderanis speaking an Iranian language which most resembles Gilaki and Sangiseri.