Ghezel Ozan river finds its source in the mountains of Kurdestan, and meandering through the winter residing quarters (Qishlaq or Gheshlaagh) of the Afshar terrain, finds its way to the suburbs of Khoda Bandeh. Thereby entering Zanjan province. Qezel Ozan (Qezel Owzan) forms a part of the two rivers that combine to form the Sefid Rood River, flows eastwards between the mountains of Talesh and the mountain ranges to the north of Zanjan.
Near Manjeel it joins the Shahrood Hezar Rood, thereby taking the name of Sefid Rood, which now increases in water-flow, proceeds north. Ultimately flowing into the Sea of Mazandaran. Neeedless to say, the banks of the Qezel Ozan River form a wonderful site and is one of the noted leisure spots in Zanjan province.
Rivers are one of the main water resources for agricultural, drinking, environmental and industrial use. Water quality indices can and have been used to identify threats to water quality along a stream and contribute to better water resources management.
There are many water quality indices for the assessment and use of surface water for drinking purposes. However, there is no well-established index for the assessment and direct use of river water for irrigation purposes. The aim of this study was to adopt the framework of the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and, with adjustments, apply it in a way which will conform to irrigation water quality requirements.
Rivers are the most important landforms on the ground whose analysis is known as a useful tool in tectonic surveys in several thousands to two million years ago. The Ghezel Ozan River, the longest river system in the country, has responded to tectonic deformation thoroughly. Detection and characterization of geomorphic anomalies in the Ghezel Ozan River and correlation with structures can specify the role of structures in making active deformations.
The intense and sudden deflection in the river course, the abnormal changes in the river sinuosity and knick points upon longitudinal profile of the river are the geomorphic anomalies connected to the structures. Deflection of the river course and abnormal changes in the river sinuosity are identified on the satellite images and approved through field observations. Knick points are specified upon longitudinal profiles of the river and the effects of lithology are surveyed in making of them٫ so that only knick points are considered which are produced by structures. Longitudinal profiles of the river have been obtained from digital elevation model. Above mentioned anomalies then have been correlated with structures extracted from geology maps and in this manner structures effective in making geomorphic anomalies have been identified.
Around the Ghezel Ozan River, marl, sandstone, siltstone, limestone, tuff, agglomerate and volcanic rocks are extremely exposed. These rocks belong to Qom, Upper Red, Lower Red and karaj formations. Deflection of the Ghezel Ozan River is surveyed in the regions of Kuh-e-Palangi, Jelovdarlou, Cham and Yengejeh. Abnormal changes in river sinuosity is studied in regions of Jomaelou, Gol gheshlagh, Armoutlou, Kuh-e-Qaravol, Ghaflankuh and Kuh-e-Pajdar. In the regions of Sharif Abad, Iemir, Kuh-e-Qaravol and Kuh-e-Pajdar, knick points are specified upon longitudinal profile of the Ghezel Ozan River.
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